Overcome complex processing and imaging challenges

Whether the goal is to optimize the acuisition geometry or predict the seismic response, we believe a successful VSP project starts with modeling.

Success begins with a pre-survey model

Our experts apply a comprehensive modeling approach to explore particular survey geometries, acquisition or processing technologies. Optimal source and receiver configurations are determined to solve a given imaging problem in the most cost-effective manner. We judge the impact of various parameter choices on final images and the impact on every stage in the processing flow.

If 2D or 3D VSP geometries are found to be sub-optimal we can design acquisition programs that utilize novel interferometic imaging algorithms, such as multiple migrations, near-well interferometric imaging, salt-flank interferometric imaging and virtual source techniques for deviated well geometries.

The design of 4D time-lapse monitoring scenarios require particularly careful and comprehensive modeling to ensure suitability for multi-year seismic programs. We perform feasibility studies, analyzing available log and core data to build rock physics relationships, which are modeled through the seismic acquisition and pre-stack depth imaging response.

Building accurate, high resolution depth velocity models

Modeling or imaging detailed structural and stratigraphic targets requires construction of a highly detailed subsurface model. Instead of analyzing simplified, generic models, we construct a full 3D subsurface model from all available data in the survey area, such as well logs, formations tops, horizons, time-depth curves, surface seismic back ground models.

To ensure the accuracy of migrated images, anisotropic analysis and tomographic tools are used to update velocity models. The result is a highly realistic model that can be used for 3D ray tracing, as well as full wave form modeling.

Solving complex imaging challenges

To ensure the best possible image of the target is obtained, our experts employ various depth imaging methods, such as ray-based or waveform continuation-based. They utilize tools, including true-amplitude multi-component Kirchhoff prestack depth migration and wave equation depth migration. Our experience processing and imaging sand dune and/or severe topography conditions has also allowed us to generate state of the art algorithms that alleviate overburden problems.

For specialty imaging problems, we use additional proprietary tools such as multiple migrations, interferometric imaging, interferometric salt proximity estimations, near well interferometric seismic imaging and microseismic event imaging.

Mapping reservoir changes in 4D

Multiple time-lapse 3D data sets can be used to analyze changes in the reservoir over time. Careful processing is needed to ensure that acquisition-related effects are removed to focus on fluid changes in the reservoir.

Our tools and our experience in 4D processing ensures accurate results. We also can perform 4D feasibility modeling to demonstrate the expected 4D signal and ensure that the acquisition program is designed to provide a good 4D response.

Overcoming challenges in microseismic processing

Our microseismic processing, available in the field for real-time analysis or post processing includes proprietary tools for event detection and mapping, as well as determining microseismic attributes such as fracture height/length and stimulated rock volume (SRV). In addition, we have developed a proprietary technique called Microseismic Interferometry that uses the microseismic events as seismic sources in order to image the fracture zone at a very high resolution.

Our interferometric imaging resolves reservoir features as small as a few feet in size, an order of magnitude or greater improvement over surface seismic. This type imaging technique is helpful in understanding the reservoir and planning additional treatment programs.

In addition to processing conventional 3C borehole microseismic data, we have developed proprietary techniques for constrained mapping of DAS crosswell microseismic data. This analysis can be done in field and in real time, complementing other crosswell and hydraulic fracture profiling measurements.

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